Solid fuel boilers are not just one of the options for heating residential buildings and industrial premises. After each increase in gas and electricity prices, this type becomes more and more relevant. It’s not surprising if you list their advantages:

  1. Inexpensive.
  2. Economical.
  3. Eco-friendly.
  4. They have a simple device.
  5. They operate on various types of fuel.
  6. Provide independence from centralized heating.
  7. There is no need to remodel boiler rooms to accommodate complex equipment.

True, there are also disadvantages. The units have to be cleaned regularly, and the fuel for them needs to be stored somewhere, and it will have to be loaded manually (except for pellet units). But compared to the advantages, these are minor things. So, if someone wants to solve the heating problem using solid fuel boilers, this can be easily done by following the link

But before you buy, you need to choose. And to do this, it is advisable to understand the advantages of each type of equipment and familiarize yourself with the TOP models.

Types of solid fuel boilers

According to the material of manufacture

Solid fuel boilers are made of cast iron or steel. The first ones are good because they are more compact and durable, and they almost never burn out. Resistant against all types of corrosion. Due to the presence of fins in the heat exchanger, they better absorb the heat released by the burned fuel. On the other hand, they can be repaired, but more difficult. They also really don’t like sudden temperature changes, which can cause a crack in the heat exchanger. A cast iron boiler is more fragile, which can be fatal during delivery or installation. And more expensive because it is more difficult to manufacture. Such installations are better suited if you plan to use mainly coal as fuel.

Steel solid fuel boiler Centrometal

Steel boilers are cheaper than cast iron. They are made of plastic material and are not afraid of shocks and impacts. A large temperature difference between supply and return is also not a problem for them. This is important if there is still enough wood left in the boiler, and the heat is no longer needed. Such heaters are quite easy to modernize, and their maintainability is high. They are easier to clean. One of the disadvantages is the fact that they burn out more often and last less. Well suited in cases where the main type of fuel is briquettes or firewood.

According to the operating principle

Traditional combustion boilers (classic)

A traditional boiler runs on wood, coal and briquettes. It can be equipped with a pellet burner with automatic loading. Fuel is burned according to the bottom-up principle. Air is supplied from below through the grate, rises upward and exits with combustion products through the chimney. The wood burns all (or almost all) at once, well and steadily.

Advantages of classic boilers: inexpensive, reliable, durable, available fuel, no installation permit required. Does not require electricity, efficiency is 75-80%. Can be equipped with automatic feeding. Able to work in tandem with an electric or gas boiler.

Traditional solid fuel boiler Neus

The only serious drawback is the need, after sufficient heating of the heating system, to reduce the power of the installation. To do this, the air supply is partially blocked, which is why, as a result of incomplete combustion of fuel, soot settles on the walls of the chimney and heat exchanger. Plus, some users don’t like that the system only works from 4 to 6 hours from one boot. TOP traditional boilers: Buderus, Altep, Palche, Viadrus, CHT, Neus, Centrometal, SWaG, Kalvis, Defro, Bosh, SAS, CET, Moderator, Elektromet.

Long burning boilers

Distinctive features of these devices are a large firebox and combustion principle. Thanks to the first factor, a lot of fuel is added at a time, which can be used as firewood, wood briquettes or coal (there are models that only run on wood). The second (upper combustion) affects the fact that of the entire stack, only the upper part of the fuel is burned at any moment, and everything below is “waiting for its turn.”

Long-burning solid fuel boiler Candle

A long-burning boiler operates on one burner for up to 36 hours (some models – up to 3 days). It consumes available fuel, moreover, economically and does not require a storage tank. The efficiency is high (82-95%), the dimensions are small. Among the disadvantages, it is worth noting that cleaning is not very convenient due to the fact that this is a fairly high installation, and the impossibility of additional loading, since the principle of operation will be disrupted. TOP long-burning boilers: SWaG, Neus, Candle, Hidromix, Vita Climat, Stropuva.

Pyrolysis boilers (gas generator)

These installations differ in that the pyrolysis process takes place in them. Due to the lack of oxygen, fuel does not burn under the influence of high temperature, but smolders with the formation of wood gas. It burns at 1100-1500°C, and along with it carbon, due to the high heat. The manufacturer advises that such units be fueled with firewood (there are coal-fired models), although other options are also allowed.

Solid fuel pyrolysis boiler Atmos

The main advantages of pyrolysis boilers: long (up to 10 hours) combustion, environmental friendliness, high efficiency (up to 90%), greater efficiency, ease of use. Recommended for the private sector. A storage tank is desirable. The only caveat is that it is better to take dry firewood, up to 20% humidity. TOP pyrolysis boilers: Atmos, Bosh, Viadrus, Buderus.

Other types

In addition to those listed, there are other types of boilers:

  • Pellets based on biofuel granules (pellets) with automatic feeding (Centrometal).
  • Airborne. They do not require water radiator systems for heating. Recommended for production or warehouse premises (SWaG).
  • Boiler-stove. Heats and cooks. Compact, with 1-2 “burners”. There are also models with an oven (Kalvis).
  • Double circuit with boiler. Will heat and provide hot water supply (Centrometal).

There are many different types of solid fuel boilers, so it can sometimes be difficult to choose. In this case, you need to consult with the store manager.

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